This section describes the conventions used for presenting information in this book.


These type conventions and symbols are used in this guide:


C++ class names, C++ member functions, C++ data members, function names, literal command-line arguments (options and flags)


Filenames; onscreen button names; system commands; executable files; manual and book titles; glossary entries; new terms; variable command-line arguments; program variables; and variables to be supplied by the user in examples, code, and syntax statements

Screen type

Onscreen text, prompts, error messages, examples, and code listings

Bold screen type

User input, including keyboard keys (printing and nonprinting); literals supplied by the user in examples, code listings, and syntax statements


(Double quotation marks) Onscreen menu items and references in text to document section titles


(Parentheses) Follow function names; also used to surround reference page (man page) section in which a command, function, or class is described


(Angle brackets) Surround nonprinting keyboard keys, for example, <Esc>, <Ctrl-D>


Shell prompt for the superuser (root)


Shell prompt for users other than superuser

Reference pages (also known as man pages) are referred to by name and section number, in this format: name(section), where "name" is the name of a command, system call, library routine, or class; and "section" is the section number where the entry resides. For example, XtSetValues(3) refers to the XtSetValues() reference page in section 3.


The first page of each chapter provides a map of the sections included in the chapter under the heading Overview.

Class Inheritance Graph Conventions

Most chapters also include a graph that depict the inheritance hierarchy of the classes described in that chapter. The graph appears in the section labeled Inheritance graph. For example, Figure 1. displays an example of a class inheritance graph that might appear at the beginning of a chapter.

Figure 1. Example of a Class Inheritance Graph

In these inheritance graphs, classes are presented with the base classes to the left and the derived classes to the right. Abstract classes have dashed borders and non-abstract classes have solid borders. Classes described within the chapter appear in white boxes, whereas classes described elsewhere appear in shaded boxes.

In the inheritance graph shown in Figure 1., VkComponent is an abstract base class. As indicated by its shaded box, it is not described within the chapter. The chapter describes three subclasses of VkComponent: VkDoubleBuffer, an abstract class; and VkTickMarks and VkResizer, non-abstract classes. The chapter also discusses the non-abstract class VkAlignmentGroup, which is derived from the non-abstract base class VkWidgetList.